Evaluating the Impact of PTI on Road Safety and Economy in Turkey (1990-2022)

The Institute for Economic Research and Consulting GmbH recently published a detailed study evaluating the efficacy of Periodic Technical Inspections (PTI) on road safety and economic outcomes in Turkey, covering data from 1990 to 2022. This comprehensive analysis, spearheaded by Prof. Dr. Wolfgang H. Schulz and his team, delves into the multifaceted impacts of PTIs, employing robust datasets and econometric models to provide insightful conclusions.

Aim and Scope / The primary objective of the study is to ascertain the effectiveness of PTIs in enhancing road safety and mitigating economic losses associated with traffic accidents in Turkey. By leveraging extensive datasets and various analytical methods, the study offers a thorough examination of how periodic vehicle inspections contribute to reducing road accidents and improving economic outcomes.

Methodology / The study employs four distinct methods to evaluate the impact of PTIs:

  • Literature Analysis: A comprehensive review of existing research on the relationship between vehicle inspections and road safety.
  • Visual Analysis: Examination of trend developments over time to identify any significant changes.
  • Autoregressive Processes: Analysis to detect patterns and shifts in the data.
  • Chow Test: Statistical verification of structural breaks in the dataset, particularly around significant policy changes such as the introduction of PTIs in 2008.

Key Findings / The study's literature analysis reveals a generally positive correlation between PTIs and improved road safety. Significant reductions in accidents and fatalities have been observed in regions implementing stringent vehicle inspection regimes. Notably, the analysis of PTI implementation in Turkey indicates a structural break in 2008, suggesting that the introduction of PTIs significantly altered the trajectory of road safety metrics. On average, the share of deaths related to fatal accidents is 0.03766. With this, 5,033 deaths could be avoided. The share of injuries per fatal accident is, on average, 1.6429, which means that 219,498 injuries could be avoided.

Trend Analysis / From 1990 to 2022, the dataset provides a comprehensive overview of road traffic accidents, fatalities, and injuries in Turkey. The analysis indicates a marked reduction in fatalities and injuries post-2008, despite an initial increase in the number of accidents. This paradoxical trend underscores the efficacy of PTIs in mitigating the severity of accidents.

Economic Impact / The economic analysis within the study highlights significant cost savings attributed to the implementation of PTIs. The average annual savings amount to approximately 1.5 billion TL, with total savings from 2008 to 2022 estimated at 22.48 billion TL. These savings underscore the economic viability of PTIs, reinforcing their role in reducing the financial burden of road accidents on society.

Regression Analysis and Chow Test / The regression models demonstrate strong relationships between the implementation of PTIs and improvements in traffic safety. The Chow test confirms the presence of a structural break in 2008, validating the significant impact of PTIs on road safety metrics in Turkey.

Conclusions and Recommendations / The study concludes that PTIs have been highly effective in improving road safety and delivering substantial economic benefits in Turkey.

Key recommendations include:

  • Enhanced PTI Frequency and Coverage: Increasing the frequency and coverage of PTIs to capture and mitigate vehicle deficiencies more effectively.
  • Integration with Other Safety Measures: Incorporating PTIs into a broader road safety strategy that includes driver education, infrastructure improvements, and stricter enforcement of traffic laws.
  • Longitudinal Studies: Conducting further research to track the long-term effects of PTIs on road safety and economic factors.
  • Comparative Analysis: Benchmarking Türkiye's PTI practices against other countries with similar traffic conditions to refine and improve inspection protocols.
  • Policy Adaptation: Updating PTI criteria and techniques to address new safety challenges and technological advancements in automotive design.

Future Implications / The success of the PTI program in Turkey suggests its continued importance in maintaining and enhancing road safety. Ongoing adaptation and integration with other safety measures will be crucial in sustaining and building on the improvements achieved thus far.

For more detailed information, the full study can be downloaded here.

Evaluation of African Road Safety Action Plan Shows Mixed Results

CITA has published new findings from a comprehensive study evaluating the African Road Safety Action Plan, developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study, conducted by researchers Dominique Mignot, Laurent Carnis, Eduard Fernandez, Davide-Shingo Usami, and Ruth Welsh, highlights the critical challenges and progress in road safety across the African continent.

The research, which aims to contribute to the improvement of road safety in Africa, reveals that despite some advancements, significant challenges remain. The mid-term evaluation of the UNECA Action Plan indicates that the expected results are not being fully realized, with progress being uneven across different pillars of road safety.


  • Road Safety Management: The study identifies weaknesses in road safety management, including poor institutional organization and coordination, inadequate policy implementation, and insufficient funding. Only a few countries like Burkina Faso and South Africa show relatively good performance, while many others lag behind.
  • Safer Roads and Mobility: The implementation of road safety audits and inspections is progressing slowly. Few countries have developed technical guidelines for road safety audits and inspections, which are crucial for improving road infrastructure safety.
  • Safer Vehicles: While vehicle inspection is widespread, the quality and regional spread of inspections are inconsistent. The study recommends encouraging the importation of safer vehicles through the application of standards and improving the roadworthiness of both new and used vehicles.
  • Safer Road Users: There has been some progress in promoting road safety among young people, but much work remains. The use of child restraints and education on safe road user behavior are areas needing significant improvement.
  • Post-Crash Response: The capacity for post-crash response, including emergency medical services and trauma care, is generally inadequate. The study emphasizes the need for better-equipped ambulances, improved emergency medical services, and the development of trauma care facilities.


The study proposes several recommendations to enhance road safety in Africa:

  • Strengthen the institutional framework and allocate adequate resources for road safety policies.
  • Develop consistent and systematic data collection systems to inform public policies.
  • Promote the use of child restraints through legislation and public awareness campaigns.
  • Improve the technical capacity for road safety audits and inspections.
  • Ensure the availability of quality spare parts and a network of qualified repair and maintenance workshops.
  • Enhance cooperation with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector.

Eduard Fernandez, representing CITA, emphasized the importance of these recommendations, stating, "Effective implementation of these measures is crucial for saving lives and improving road safety across Africa. CITA remains committed to supporting African countries in their efforts to enhance road safety."

For more detailed information, the full research report can be accessed here.

A new CITA member from Bulgaria: Autotest Group EOOD

Autotest Group EOOD is a leader in Bulgaria's automotive inspection industry, dedicated to high standards of vehicle safety and compliance. Annually, they conduct nearly 200,000 technical inspections and are recognized for their meticulous checks on vehicle components and documentation to ensure legal compliance. They operate 18 centers nationwide, featuring online booking and extended hours for customer convenience.

Their commitment to using advanced technology enhances the effectiveness of their inspections. Autotest Group aims to promote road safety and participates in global networks like CITA to stay at the forefront of the industry.

For more information about our services and our dedication to vehicle safety, please visit their website

CITA Webinar “Validation of a Method to Test NOx Emissions”

The webinar, hosted by CITA and the Joint Research Centre (JRC), took place on June 19th on the CITA Zoom channel with over 80 participants. The discussion focused on the collaborative project between the two organizations, aimed at validating a new method for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions during Periodic Technical Inspections (PTI) in the EU.

Mr. Jacopo Franzetti, Project Manager for Scientific Research at JRC – European Commission, and Mr. Max Holtermueller from DEKRA together with Mr. Thomas Ost, leader of the CITA Taskforce on Emissions, led the presentations. They highlighted the importance of NOx, its formation and reduction, and the scope, the method and results of the project.

Why Focus on NOx? Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are harmful pollutants with severe health impacts. NOx is a strong oxidizing agent that can cause respiratory issues, aggravate other pollutants' effects, and lead to diseases like asthma, bronchitis, and cardiovascular problems. A significant improvement in air quality in Europe has been noted, but NOx levels still exceed WHO guidelines, contributing to premature deaths. NOx primarily forms at high temperatures in the presence of sufficient oxygen, commonly occurring under high engine loads. This poses a challenge for PTI, as controlling these conditions during inspections is complex.

The Project. The JRC has developed a streamlined method for measuring NOx emissions during the PTI of modern Euro 6d diesel light-duty and Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles. This aims to identify malfunctions in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, crucial for reducing NOx emissions. The objective of the project was to validate a NOx monitoring method tailored for PTI in the EU, focusing on modern diesel vehicles under real-world conditions. Various CITA members participated, testing vehicles across different EU countries to account for diverse PTI systems.

The Results. 161 vehicles from various countries were tested, encompassing a wide range of mileages and ages. Key findings include:

  • Vehicle Age and Mileage:  A very wide range of vehicles were tested, with mileages ranging from 0 to 347.000 km.
  • NOx Emissions: Average NOx emissions were 26 ppm in the first 30 seconds, with significant variations among different participants and vehicle conditions.
  • Feedback: Participants rated the method's feasibility, integrability, and time effort on a scale from 1 to 5, with average scores indicating moderate satisfaction. Challenges included difficulty in warming up vehicles and software/hardware issues.

Conclusion. The validated method is suitable for modern diesel vehicles with SCR catalysts but not for those without. While the method is generally simple, integrating the warm-up process into PTI remains a challenge. Further optimization and precise specifications for the warm-up process are necessary. CITA's Task Force on Emissions is preparing a detailed report on the project's findings, expected to be published by August/September. Additionally, a survey on driving practices during PTI will be conducted between CITA members.

CITA remains committed to supporting the method's further development and implementation.

Training Courses Highlight the Future of EVs in Africa

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO) organized a comprehensive series of training courses aimed at fostering the development of electric vehicle (EV) technology and maintenance skills across Africa. This initiative is part of a broader effort to promote sustainable development, industrial growth, and environmental protection on the continent.

The training courses, spanning from June 4th to June 14th, covered a wide range of topics essential for the advancement of EV technology and energy storage systems (EST) in Africa. These sessions were designed to equip African governments, private sector companies, and young entrepreneurs with the knowledge and skills needed to participate effectively in the global EV and EST value chain.

Among the key events was the training session held on June 13th, which featured the contributions from CITA: Entitled "Electric Vehicle Maintenance", the session was conducted by the presentations from Mr. Víctor Salvachúa and Mr. Eduard Fernández, drawing significant attention from various stakeholders involved in the EV industry.

Mr. Salvachúa, leader of the CITA Task Force on Electric Vehicles and head of CITA's Topic Area A, delivered a technical presentation that delved into the realities and challenges of managing electric vehicles from a practical, real-world perspective. His insights were crucial in highlighting the operational hurdles and maintenance issues faced by EVs, providing participants with a thorough understanding of the technical aspects that must be addressed to ensure the efficient functioning and longevity of these vehicles.

Complementing the technical insights, Mr. Fernández, the Executive Director of CITA, offered an institutional presentation. He emphasized the role of CITA in advancing global standards and best practices in vehicle inspection and maintenance, thereby supporting the region's transition towards cleaner and more efficient transportation solutions.

Enhancing Mongolia’s Traffic Safety: A Strategic Initiative

In early June, Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, hosted a significant seminar organized by the Korea Transportation Safety Authority (KoTSA). The seminar focused on the theme of "The Role of Inspection for the Safety of Vehicles in Developing Countries and Measures to Improve the Import and Export Environment." This event was part of the broader Mongolia Transport Safety Improvement Project, a key initiative aimed at enhancing road safety and environmental health in Mongolia.

The seminar gathered several notable figures in the transportation safety sector:

  • Mrs. Munkhnasan, Director of the Mongolian Road Transport Development Department, along with her team.
  • Mr. Eduard Fernandez, Executive Director of CITA.
  • Mr. Kaneyoshi Ikeda, President and Managing Director of JEVIC.
  • Mr. Visar Cekici, Head of Vehicle Registration of the Albanian General Directorate of Road Transport Services.

The seminar aimed to highlight the importance and necessity of vehicle inspections, emphasizing their role in improving road safety and air quality. Through its project in Mongolia, KoTSA sought to secure the government's implementation capability for enhancing the import and export environment, and to discuss potential cooperation with neighboring countries.

Eduard Fernández's participation was particularly significant, given CITA's extensive experience and knowledge from previous projects in Africa. His visit underscored the importance of discussing more cases and current activities in WP.29, aiming to attract the Mongolian government's interest and contribute to the project's success.

During his stay, Mr. Fernandez also met with members of the National Road Transport Center and visited several PTI centers, providing valuable insights into the ongoing efforts and future plans.

About the Project
The Mongolia Transport Safety Improvement Project, launched in August 2023, is an ambitious initiative aimed at enhancing vehicle inspection facilities and capacity building within Mongolia. The project is a collaborative effort involving several key partners:

  • Ordering Agency: Korean International Cooperation Agency (KoICA)
  • Mongolian Partners: Ministry of Road and Transport Development (MRTD) and Mongolia Road Transport Center (NRTC)
  • Project Partners: Korean Transportation Safety Authorities (KoTSA), the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), and the Korean Road Traffic Authority (KOROAD

The primary goals of the project are to enhance traffic safety and improve air quality in Ulaanbaatar. By strengthening vehicle inspection capacity and modernizing inspection facilities, the project aims to significantly reduce traffic accidents. Additionally, the project includes national policy consulting on vehicle emission gases to address air pollution in the capital city.

Looking forward, the project plans to continue its policy consulting and modernization efforts, ensuring the establishment of a comprehensive vehicle inspection management system. Ongoing capacity building through continuous training programs remains a cornerstone of this initiative.

Seminar on Mandatory PTI by ANASEVI

The National Alliance for Road Safety in Mexico (ANASEVI) organized the third session of its "ANASEVI Dialogues 2024" seminar series, focusing on the implementation of mandatory PTI. This webinar took place on May 30 and served as a crucial platform to discuss road safety, accident prevention, and the environmental impact of vehicles in Mexico.

Entitled "Inspección Técnica Vehicular. Estándares en México," the seminar aimed to address the challenges and benefits of implementing mandatory PTI in Mexico. The primary objective was to improve road safety, prevent traffic accidents caused by mechanical failures, promote a culture of vehicle maintenance, and reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. Participants discussed key aspects such as necessary equipment, professional training, inspection protocols, and mechanisms to ensure the quality and transparency of inspections.

The event featured prominent experts in the field. Roy Rojas Vargas, an international consultant from COSEVI (Costa Rica), spoke on "PTI Experiences in LATAM: Proposals for Implementation in Mexico."

Mr. Eduard Fernández, CITA Executive Director, delivered a presentation on "PTI Experiences: Recommendations for Implementation in Mexico." His presentation provided valuable input from worldwide experiences, highlighting best practices and successful strategies from various countries. As the Executive Director of CITA, he shared comprehensive insights based on global experiences with PTI.

Luis Arturo Salinas Carreón, Operational Director of IATSA, discussed the "Challenges of Implementing PTI from the Service Provider's Perspective." The session was moderated by Salvador Saavedra, founding partner of ANASEVI and President of the Automotive Industry Committee at CANACINTRA (Mexico).

The "ANASEVI Dialogues 2024" series offered a unique opportunity for stakeholders interested in sustainable mobility and road safety to engage and contribute to creating a safer and more sustainable environment on Mexican roads.

Mobility in Slovakia Conference

On May 30, 2024, the "Mobility in Slovakia" conference brought together key stakeholders in the field of vehicle testing, approval, and inspection. This significant event, organized by TÜV SÜD in collaboration with the Ministry of Transport of the Slovak Republic, featured active participation from CITA, as well as representatives from Homola, TESTEK, S-EKA, and IRIS-IDENT.

The conference aimed to address the challenges and advancements in vehicle inspection and approval processes, attracting the attention of professionals and organizations deeply involved in this critical field.

CITA President Mr. Gerhard Müller delivered a compelling keynote, emphasizing the importance of vehicle inspection in achieving the ambitious goals of Vision Zero and the European Green Deal. Mr. Müller highlighted how these EU strategies will influence future trends in the automotive industry, stressing that rigorous vehicle inspections are essential to ensuring safety and environmental sustainability.

CITA's active participation extended beyond the keynote, with a detailed presentation by Mr. Eduard Fernández - CITA Executive Director, who discussed the evolving landscape of vehicle inspections and the regulatory changes on the horizon.

The conference agenda included a series of insightful lectures covering a wide range of pertinent topics. Experts discussed cybersecurity in the automotive sector, a critical area as vehicles become increasingly connected and digitalized. The upcoming changes to the Directive on technical inspection of vehicles and the EURO 7 emission standard were also thoroughly examined, providing attendees with valuable insights into future regulatory requirements.

The "Mobility in Slovakia" conference underscored the critical role of PTI in achieving safer roads and a cleaner environment. As the automotive industry continues to evolve, such events are essential for fostering collaboration and innovation to meet the challenges of the future.

The 23rd CITA General Assembly

Designed as a hybrid event, the 23rd CITA General Assembly, was held on May 16, 2024, at the SPARKS Event Center in Brussels, Belgium.

The assembly was opened by CITA President Mr. Müller, who warmly welcomed the members. The presence of voting members was confirmed, setting the stage for a day of robust discussions and strategic decisions. The provisional agenda was adopted smoothly, followed by the approval of the 22nd GA report, which highlighted last year’s achievements and set the groundwork for this year's agenda.

One of the key points of the assembly was the discussion of the 2023 accounts, which provided a transparent overview of CITA's financial health and paved the way for future initiatives. New members were welcomed into the fold through the voting process, signifying CITA's growing influence and reach.

The assembly featured detailed reports from the various Regional Advisory Groups (RAGs), including Africa, Asia/Austral Asia, Latin America, North America, and Europe. These reports emphasized localized challenges and successes, providing a comprehensive global perspective on vehicle compliance issues. Then discussions were segmented into the different CITA Topic Areas (TAs), focusing on the core issues and future directions of vehicle compliance.

The budget for 2024-2025 was approved, alongside modifications to the Articles of Incorporation, which were critically reviewed and voted upon.

Elections were held for key positions within the Bureau Permanent and among Corporate Members' Representatives, ensuring that CITA's leadership remains dynamic and representative of its diverse membership base.

At the assembly's conclusion, members celebrated Henk Bussink's distinguished career and his retirement after years of dedicated service to CITA and its Bureau Permanent. President Müller presented him with a token of appreciation for his invaluable contributions. Mr. Müller's closing remarks highlighted the assembly's productivity and expressed optimism for the future.

The day concluded with a dinner gathering, providing a perfect opportunity for members to network, discuss the day’s outcomes, and forge new collaborations.

Overview of the New EU Regulation on Vehicle Emissions & Battery Durability

The European Union has enacted Regulation (EU) 2024/1257, a legislative measure aimed at improving the environmental standards for motor vehicles within the member states. This regulation introduces stringent type-approval requirements for motor vehicles and their engines, focusing specifically on emissions and battery durability. The legislation is a part of the broader EU Green Deal initiative, which seeks a climate-neutral, clean, and circular economy by 2050.

Key Points:

  • Zero Pollution Goal: By 2030, the regulation supports the EU's objective to achieve zero pollution, enhancing air, water, and soil quality by minimizing harmful emissions from vehicles.
  • Unified Standards: The new regulation consolidates and repeals several older regulations to create a uniform system for emission type-approvals for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles across the EU.
  • Advanced Technology Integration: The legislation encourages the integration of advanced technologies in vehicles, such as on-board monitoring systems and improved battery performance metrics, to ensure compliance with emissions and durability standards throughout a vehicle's operational life.
  • Social and Economic Considerations: The regulation also addresses the socio-economic impacts of transitioning to cleaner mobility, emphasizing affordability, the preservation of industry competitiveness, job creation, and workforce skills development.
  • Market Surveillance and Compliance: Enhanced market surveillance mechanisms are put in place to ensure strict compliance with the regulation, incorporating substantial penalties for non-compliance.
  • Future Adaptations: The document allows for future amendments to incorporate advances in vehicle technology and emissions science, ensuring the regulation remains relevant and effective.
  • Automotive Manufacturers: Required to adapt their production lines to meet stricter emissions and battery durability standards.
  • EU Member States: Must update national regulations and enforcement practices to align with EU standards.
  • Consumers: Will see a market shift towards more durable and environmentally friendly vehicles.

Regulation (EU) 2024/1257 represents a step forward in the EU's commitment to environmental sustainability and public health protection. It sets a framework for reducing vehicle emissions and enhancing battery durability, aligning with global environmental goals and technological advancements.

  • Title: Regulation (EU) 2024/1257
  • Adopted by: European Parliament and Council
  • Date of Adoption: 24 April 2024
  • Implementation Date: 8 May 2024
  • Relevance: Applicable throughout the European Economic Area (EEA)